First Choice
Scientific name
Epinephelus lanceolatus
Hong Kong
Production method
Recirculating aquaculture system(RAS)
IUCN status
Data deficient
Source of fry



The species is carnivorous. The fish-in-fish-out ratio is relatively high, meaning that large volumes of fish feed are needed to produce one kilogram of giant grouper. This can put additional pressure on the already overfished populations of other marine species. Fish farms use pellet feed from traceable sources, but sustainability certification is lacking. 

Ecological effects

The use of chemicals is regulated. Juveniles are hatchery-based with wild breeders captured in Australian EEZ Arafura Sea under legal control. Breeders are released back to the wild afterwards. Ecological impact on wild collection is minimal. 


The regulatory framework in Hong Kong covers environment impact assessment (EIA), protection of valuable habitat, water pollution, chemical control, environmental monitoring, most of which have been partly effective and is dependent on self-monitoring by fish farms.