Sabah Grouper

Scientific name
Epinephelus lanceolatus X Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
Production method
Floating net cages
Source of fry

Juveniles are hatchery-based as this is not a naturally occurring species.


This species is carnivorous. Wild fish are used to produce fish feed and subsequently the fish-in-fish-out ratio is high, meaning that quite a large volume of fish is input into the feed system as feed. Feed components are generally not traceable and have not been proven to be sustainable.

Ecological effects

Discharge is not well-regulated and may have a negative impact on the nearby waters as the systems are open systems. Chemicals may be used but this is regulated. There have been reports of damaged cages and this hybrid species escaping to the wild. The impact of this on the ecosystem is not well-known.


The regulatory framework covers issues concerning site location planning, use of land and water resources, environmental impact assessment, protection of valuable habitats, chemical use, discharge, disease management and monitoring, but these are only considered partially effective.