Feed inputs are required to farmed shrimp. The fish-in-fish-out ratio is low, meaning that low amounts of fish are needed for feed to produce one kilogram of whiteleg shrimp. The traceability policies are strong and verifiable with most sources of feed ingredients certified environmentally responsible by a reliable standard. There is transgenic (GM) plant material in the feed component.
The rate of waste discharge under the RAS system is not high, making the impact on the environment minimal including sensitive areas (e.g. mangroves). Whiteleg shrimp is a non-native species to Vietnam and when escape occurs, it could negatively affect the surrounding environment. Disease is a problem in shrimp farming with chemicals used in this production method, causing moderate environmental risk and impact.
The basic legislation applicable to Vietnam’s aquaculture is the Fisheries Law of 2003, particularly Chapter IV, which is dedicated to the regulation of aquaculture. The law itself does not set many material standards but requires compliance with inter-alia veterinary salinity standards and environmental protection. It should therefore be seen as a procedural law. The overall management is marginally effective.