Tiger Grouper

Scientific name
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
Production method
Floating net cages
IUCN status
Source of fry

Hatcheries and wild-caught from overexploited stocks using destructive methods.


The species is carnivorous. The feed mainly consists of trash fish, which comes from overexploited stock making traceability low. The fish-in-fish-out ratio is high, meaning a large volume of fish is needed to produce one kilogram of tiger grouper.

Ecological effects

Since net cage fully opens to the sea, a high rate of untreated waste discharges directly into the natural environment. Habitat alteration is moderate. The escape risk is high, and the impact to the ecosystem is low to moderate. This species may be affected by both viral and bacterial diseases and can host various parasites. In order to treat various diseases, a variety of veterinary drugs are used.


The overall regulatory framework is marginally effective in Thailand. Nevertheless, there is continuous enforcement of local policies and regulations, mainly related to land and water resources concerning waste discharge that have been partly effective.