Tiger Grouper

Scientific name
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus
Production method
Floating net cages
IUCN status
Source of fry

Mainly relies on wild seed collection from overexploited stocks.


This species is carnivorous, with feed relying on trash fish and components not always traceable. There’s a high fish-in-fish out ratio, meaning large volumes of fish are needed to produce one kilogram of grouper.

Ecological effects

Since net cage fully opens to the sea, untreated waste discharges directly into the natural environment. There is a high waste discharge rate. The habitat alteration is moderate. The escape risk is high, but as tiger grouper is native to Malaysia, the escape impact is low. Chemicals are used on the fish, which is prone to diseases from viruses, bacteria and parasites.


In Malaysia, the strategic environmental planning and environmental impact assessment are weak. Management includes habitat protection, water use, waste discharge, environmental monitoring and disease control. The overall management is marginally effective. Nevertheless, there is continuous enforcement of related aquaculture regulations.