Mainly local hatcheries from wild-caught broodstock.
As a filter-feeding organism, no external feed inputs are needed and no fishing pressure is placed on wild stock.
This farming method creates very low waste discharge and has no impact on the surrounding environment. The extent of habitat alteration may vary from one culture system to another. Due to its open farming system, the escape risk is high, but the escape impact is low. There have not been any reports of disease outbreaks. Chemicals are not used during the grow-out phase for the species, but they would be potentially asked to limit the spread of diseases in hatcheries.
China’s regulatory framework for aquaculture is marginally effective. However, it is continuously becoming more comprehensive to satisfy the continuous development of the sector and to minimise adverse environmental impact. Unfortunately, there are no aquaculture improvement programmes for clam farmers. Monitoring and enforcement do not appear to be consistently effective. Data availability is partially limited and lacks monitoring and transparency.