Orange-spotted Grouper

Scientific name
Epinephelus coioides
Production method
Floating net cages
Source of fry



Pellet feed is used and the fish-in-fish-out ratio is high, meaning that large amounts of fish are used as feed to produce one kilogram of grouper. The protein and oil components are not always traceable.  

Ecological effects

Farming orange-spotted groupers in cages may cause high waste discharge that may negatively affect the surrounding environment. The culture of groupers can cause alterations in areas of moderate ecological sensitivity. Under this production method, the escape risk is high, but the escape impact is unknown. Orange-spotted groupers could be subject to both viral and bacterial diseases and host various parasites. But transmission to wild species and the negative impact on the surrounding environment are not well known. In order to treat diseases, chemicals may still be used, mainly antibiotics. 


The regulatory framework for aquaculture in Taiwan requires more effective and sector-specific laws and regulations to better address issues relating to different aquaculture operations. Nevertheless, progress has been made on the enforcement of laws and regulations. Overall, it has been partly effective.