Manila clams are filter feeders, so feed is not required in this production method. There is no fishing pressure to wild stock.
This harvest method may cause moderate habitat alteration. Since this production method directly opens to the sea, the escape risk is high and the escape impact is high. No chemicals are applied in this production system.
There is a lack of comprehensive environmental impact assessment. China is focusing on land and water use, habitat protection, chemical usage. The overall management is partly effective.